HSK 1 (A1) Grammar

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Pronoun 代词 Dài cí

Personal Pronouns 人称代词 rén chēng dài cí

nǐ wǒ tā tā tā wǒ men nǐ men tā men tā men tā men

你 我 他 她 它  我们 你们 他们 她们  它们

You/I/He/She/It/We/You (Plural)/Them(for guys/girls/objects and animals)

Demonstrative  Pronouns   指示代词 zhǐ shì dài cí

zhè (zhè’er)             nǎ (nà’er)

这 (这儿)  Here  那 (那儿) There

Interrogative Pronouns 疑问代词 yí wèn dài cí

shuí nǎ (nǎ’er) shén me duō shǎo jǐ zěn me zěn me yàng

谁  哪(哪儿) 什么 多少  几 怎么  怎么样

who/where/what/how many (much)/how many (much)/how/how is it

Numerals 数词  Shù cí

diǎn            fēn        nián            yuè            rì             xīng qí

To indicate time   点  o’clock minuteyear month  日 day 星期 day of the week

To indicate age      suì

To indicate monetary value   Kuài     Yuán

二èr  digital number ‘2’  两 liǎng measure word, indicates ‘two of something’

Measure words 量词 liàng cí

  1. number  + 个 /本 (gè/běn)for general objects/for books
  2. 这/那/几 (zhè/nà/jǐ ) + 个/本(gè/běn)

This/that/how many + general objects/books

Adverb 副词 fù cí

  1. negation 不/没 bù/méi   no/doesn’t 
  2. degree 太/很 tài/hěn  too/very
  3. scope 都 dōu all   也 yě Also

Conjunction 连词 lián cí

and

还是 hái shì Or

Preposition 介词 jiè cí 

at;in

Auxiliary Verb 助动词 zhù dòng cí

会 / 能 huì /néng   can

yào to want to

可以 kě yǐ   Can asking for permission

Particle 助词 zhù cí

Structrual particle 结构助词  jié gòu zhù cí

 的 de

Modal particle 语气助词 yǔ qì zhù cí

了 le  ne ma ba

declarative sentence 陈述句 chén shù jù

Affirmative 肯定句 kěn dìng jù

天气很好。  tiān qì hěn hǎo   The weather is nice. 

明天星期天。míng tiān xīng qí tiān It is Sunday tomorrow. 

Negative  否定句 fǒu dìng jù

小明不在家。xiǎo míng bú zài jiā Xiao Ming is not at home. 

他没吃饭。tā méi chī fàn He did not eat (a meal).

Interrogative sentence 疑问句 yí wèn jù

ma ne shuí nǎ nǎ’er shén me duō shǎo jǐ zěn me zěn me yàng

吗   呢   谁  哪     哪儿    什么   多少   几   怎么   怎么样

Imperative 祈使句 qǐ shǐ jù 

qǐng please

Exclamatory 感叹句 gǎn tàn jù

tài too, so e.g. 太好了tài hǎo le so good, that’s great!

Special sentence 特殊句型 tè shū jù xíng

  1. ‘shi’ sentence 是字句 shì zì jù

2. ‘you’ sentence 有字句 yǒu zì jù

3. ‘shi..de’ sentence 是。。。的  shì… De

Time      他是昨天到的。tā shì zuó tiān dào de He had arrived yesterday. 

Place   这是商店里买的。 zhè shì shāng diàn lǐ mǎi de This is bought from the shop. 

Method 她骑自行车来的。tā qí zì xíngchē lái de She came here by bike. 

 zai…ne’ 在。。。呢 zài… ne   to indicate an ongoing action 

(呢 is just there to add a bit of an emotion to the sentence)

 

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