Complement 补语 | Chinese Grammar Point

Complement 补语 bǔ yǔ is a distinct feature in Chinese language. It is a word or a phrase placed behind a verb (or sometimes an adjective) to present additional information to the verb (or adjective).

 

                                                 jié guǒ bǔ yǔ
1.   Result complement           结果补语

To indicate the result of an verb

做 Zuò       做 完  zuò wán

to do           to finish (doing)

zuò zuò yè      Zuò wán zuò yè
做 作 业             做 完 作 业

to do homework    to finish (doing) homework

Tīng       Tīng jiàn      Tīng wán
听            听见                  听 完

to listen    to hear      to finish listening to 

Wǒ xiǎng tīng niǎo jiào shēng
我想听鸟叫声              I want to hear bird crying (I cannot yet hear)

Wǒ tīng jiàn niǎo jiào shēng

我听见鸟叫声              I hear bird crying

 Kě néng bǔ yǔ
2. Potential complement    可能补语

To indicate whether a verb can or cannot be done

Chī dé wán        Tīng dé jiàn
吃 得 完                    听得见

Can finish the food        can hear

Wǒ tīng dé jiàn niǎo jiào shēng

我听得见鸟叫声   I can hear bird crying

Zuò bù wán      Tīng bù dǒng
做不完                  听不懂

Cannot finish       cannot understand

qū xiàng bǔ yǔ

3. Direction complement    趋向补语

To indicate the direction of a verb

fàng xià          zǒu huí lái
放 下                   走 回 来

to put it down          to walk back

shù liàng bǔ yǔ    

4. Quantity complement      数量补语

To indicate the length of time or the number of times that an action had occurred

zuò sān cì           děng sān gè xiǎo shí
做 三 次                   等三个小时

to do three times       to wait for three hours

                                               Zhuàng tài bǔ yǔ
5. State complement            状态补语

To show the condition of a verb

xiǎng dé jiǎn dān          chī dé hěn bǎo
想 得 简 单                           吃得很饱

to think is easy               to be very full (eat a lot)

     Chéng dù bǔ yǔ
 6. Degree complement               程度补语

To show the degree of a verb or an adjective. 

Hǎo jí le           chǒu sǐ le
 好极了                  丑死了

extremely good       extremely ugly

Shí jiān    chù suǒ bǔ yǔ
 7. Time, location complement   时间、处所补语 

To indicate when or where the action is taking place. 

děng dào xià gè yuè          huí dào zhōng guó
等 到 下 个 月                                回到中国

Wait till next month              come back to China

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